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The Great Table Tennis

Table Tennis is also called ping-pong and whiff-whaff. This is a game in which two or four players hit light balls back and forth across the table using the small racket. The game takes place on a hard table divided on the net. The rules other than the first are as follows:-

Players are allowed to play on the table. the ball must be allowed to bounce once. He must return so that he bounces on the other side at least once. When a players fails to return the ball inside the rules, a point is scored.

The game is fast and demands a response. Turning the ball has its trajectory. Turns and limits the opponent’s options, giving him a better hit advantage.

[Table tennis at the highest level]
  • Highest Governing body – ITTF
  • First Played – 1880s Victorian England

Characteristics

  • Contant – No
  • Team Members – single or double
  • Type – requet sport, indoor
  • Equipment – poly, 40mm (1.57 in), 2.7g (0.095 oz)
  • Glossary – glossary of table tennis

Presence

  • Olympic – since 1988
  • Paralympic – since inaugural 1960 summer paralympic

Table tennis is run by the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF), a worldwide organization established in 1926. It currently has 226 members associations. The rules of table tennis officials are specified in the ITTF booklet.

Table tennis has been an olympic sport since 1988, with many events. From 1988 to 2004, there were men’s singles, women’s singles, men’s doubles, women’s doubles. Since 2008, she has held a team instead of being a doubles.

History

Many people in America, India and South-Africa believe that the game was played in their country. But other experts say that this game started in England. Ping-Pong Association was formed in England itself. Later it was renamed as table tennis association in 1926. The United States table tennis association was formed in 1933. Then in 1938, the indian table tennis association was established. At the olympic level, table tennis was included in the 1988 olympic games. But table tennis has been played since 1958 in Asian Games.

The game originated in Victorian England where it was played in the upper class aftter a dinner parlour game. It has been suggested that temporary versions of the game were developed by British Military Officers in India around 1860 or 1870. Who brought it back with them. A row of books stood as a net in the middle of the table. Two more books were given in the form of rackets and used to hit a golf ball relentlessly.

Rule Changes

After the 2000 olympics in Sydney, the ITTF introduced several rules changes. Whose goal was to make table tennis more viable as a spectator on television. Previously, older 38mm (1.50 in) balls were officially replaced in october 2000 by 40mm (1.57 in).

This increased the air resistance of the ball and effectively slowed the game down. By this time players began to increase the thickness of the sharp sponge layer on their paddles. This made the game faster and harder to watch T.V. A few month’s later, the ITTF was changed from a 21 point to an 11 point scoring system, effective in september 2001. It was intended to make the game more fast paced and exciting.

Effective in 2002, ITTF also changed the rules of service to prevent a player from concealing the ball during service, in order to increase the average length of effective raids and reduce server advantage. The ball must be thrown into the air at a height of at least 16cm to provide time to defeat the opposition. The ITTF states than all events after july 2014 are played with a new shift material ball.

Assortment of 40mm table tennis ball

General Rules

1. Table

Table tennis tables should be 274cm long and 152.5cm wide. It’s height should be 76cm. The table can be made of any material but its bounce should be according to the norm and the same. The surface of the table should be dark green. The border line on each side of table should be white in colour and 2cm wide. The white lines for the double should be 3cm wide and should be laced in the centre of the table. This line should be parallel to the side lines.

Perfect table tennis table…

2. Net

The length of table tennis net should be 183cm. The height of the net should be 15.25cm from the table surface.

3. Racket

What can be the shape or size of a racket, but its surface should be tough.

4. Ball

The ball should be circular. Itt should be made of plastic material or celluloid. Ball colour should be white and orange. The diameter of the ball should be 40mm and its weight should be 2.55 grams.

[Table tennis international ball]

5. Order of serving, receiving and ends

Serving, receiving and siro’s karma is decided by lottery. The winner of the lottery can choose to seerve or receive at anny end. When a player or double’s player choose another option. After every 2 points, the receiving playerr will serve and continue this sequence until the game ends. If the scores of both the players reach 10-10 then the order of serving and receiving remains the same. But each player will only serve once until the end of their turn game. The player who served in the first game will receive in the next game.

6. Game

A game is won by the player or double players who first scored 11 points. If both the players score 10-10 points then the same player wins the game which takes the lead of the first two-digits.

7. Match

There are five best games for men and three best for women.

8. Service

At the beginning of the service, the palm of the server’s hand should be open, immovable, stable and independent. The player’s hand must be above the playing surface until the ball is strike. The server should be bounce the ball at least 16cm upward without spinning. The server must strike the ball when the bow goes down. So that after the strike it touches the server’s courrt and touches the receiver directly over the net.

9. Return

The ball should be returned in such a way that it crosses directly above the net and touches the oponent’s court. If the ball can ttouch the net or its sports while it is passing over it, it is considered to have passed directly.

10. Points

A player loses points:-

  1. If he fails to do good service.
  2. If he fails to return tha ball properly.
  3. When the is in play, at such a time, his free hands touches the playing surface.
  4. If during the game, his racket or uniform touches the net’s sport’s.
  5. The oposing player makes a good return and before the ball touches the playing surfce of his own half if the player or his uniform contacts the ball.
  6. If he strikes the ball twise.

11. Let

These will be service let:-

  1. If in service, the ball touhes the net or its sports crossing the net.
  2. On the conditionn that the service is fine.
  3. If the receiver is not ready to play the ball and makes no effect to play the ball.
  4. The order of play is interrupted accidently or accidently in the game.
  5. If a layer is warned or punished.
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Football Competitions

Governing Bodies

the recongnized international governig body of football (and related sports such as futsal and beach football) is FIFA. The FIFA headquarters are located in Zurich, Switzerland. Six regional associations are associated with FIFA; these are-

  • Asia: Asian football confederation (AFC)
  • Africa: Confederation of African Football (CAF)
  • Europe: Union of European Football Association (UEFA)
  • North/Central America & Cribbean: Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF)
  • Oceania: Oceania Football Confederation (OFC)
  • South America: South American Football Confederation (SAFC)

National associations oversee football within individual contries. They are usally synonymous with sovereign states (for example: the football federation in cameron). But a small number of such associations are included for sub-national intitutions or autonomous regions. Are responsible (For example : The scottish Football Association in Scotland). The 209 national associations are affiliated with FIFA and with their respective continental federation. FIFA is responsible for arranging international compitition and most rules, the actual laws of the game are determined by the International Football Association Board, where each U.K. The union has one vote, while FIFA has a total of four votes.

International Competitions

In international competitions, there are mainly two types of competitions. The representaative national team or club competitions based in several nations and national leagues. International football without qualification, often refers to the former in the case of international club competition, the clubs involved in international club competitions. The country of origin, not the nationalities of their players, gives the competition an international nature.

The major international competition in football is the World Cup, whicch is organized by FIFA. The competition takes place every four years from 1930, except for the tournaments of 1942 and 1946. Approximately 190-200 national teams from the continental federation for a place in the finals. Within the scope will participate in the qualifying tournament. In the final tournament held every four years, 32 national teams are involved in the competition over a period of four weeks. The world cup is the world’s most prestigious football competition as well as the most watched and olympic games in the world. Further sporting events followed. The total viewership of all matches of the 2006 FIFA world cup was estimated at 26-29 billion with an estimated 715.1 million people watching the final match. Comprising one-ninth of the world’s total population.

Current champion France won the second title in the 2018 compitition in Russia. The FIIFA women’s world cup has been held every four years since 1991. Under the current format f the tournaments, the national team would have won 23 slots in the three year qualification stage. The current champion is the United States, after winning their fourth title at the 2019 FIFA women’s world cup. Club football’s most prestigious competitions are the respective continental championships. Which are usally contested between national champions, Foe example: the UFA champions league in Europe and the copa lifedores in South-America. The winners of each continental competition are the FIFA club world cup competition.

Domestic Cmpetitions

The governing bodies of each country operate league systems in a domestic season consisting of multiple divisions. Teams are placed in tables, placing them in order according to the points earned. Each teams plays each team. At the end of a season, the top team is declared the champion. Some teams may be promoted to the top division and one or more teams are finalized at the bottom.

The final concluding team at the top of the nation’s league may have the opportunity to play in international club competitionns next season. The main exception to this system are in some Latin American Leagues. That divide the football championship into two parts called the Apatura and the Cleohna (called for opening and closing in Spain). Majority countries supplement the league system in one or two cup competitions held on a non-aggression basis.

The top divisions of some countries have contributed immensely to star players; in smaller countries, lower divisions, and most women’s clubs, players may be part timers from other jobs, or ameteurs. Five top European Leagues:- Bundeslig(Gernmany), Premier League(England), Series A(Italy), and League 1 (France). Each of the world’s bast players has a total salary of over 600 million rupees/ 763 million euro/ 1.185 billion dollars.

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Football Rules

Ball in and out of play

Under the rules, the two basic states of the game during the game are the ball in the game and the ball ouut of the game. From the beginning of each game period. The ball has to be played at all times until it is off the field of play. Except whhen the ball quits the game or is stopped by the referee. When the ball is separated from the game, the game is initiated in eight ways to restart. Depending on how it went out of play the game.

Kicking Ball

Kick off : After a goal by the opposing team, or to start each play period.

Throw-in : When the ball has cross the touchline, the oppossing team is awarded the one who finally touched the ball.

Goal kick : Awarded to the depending team when the ball has completely crossed its goal line with no goal and is touched by a player from the attacking team.

Corner kick : Awarded to the attacking team when the ball has completely crossed the target without a run and is rescued by a player.

Indirect free kick : The opposing team is dismissed without any special dishonesty after a “non-penalty” flls, after some technical violation, or when the game is stopped. A goal from as indirect free kick is a straight run. Cannot be made (without touching the other player with thw ball).

Direct free kick : A few listed “penalty” given to the steel team after ffalls. A goal can be scored with a straigth free kick.

Penalty kick : The team being awarded has been punished in the penalty area being awardeed on the basis of direct free kick.

Dropped ball : This occurs when the referee stops messinng up the referee for any other reason. Such as a serious injury to a player, interference from an outside party, or the ball becomes foulty.

Misconduct Foul (Football Associaion)

On field : False occurs when a player commits an offense listed in the laws of the game while the ball is in play. The offenses that constitute dishonesty are listed in law 12. Examples of penalty falls are punishable by a straigth free kick or a penalty kick. On other fouls can be hit indirectly.

The referee may punish the misconduct of player or substitute by vigilance (yellow card) or dismissal (red card). The second yellow card of the same game causes a red card that results in a dismissal. The player referee is called a “book” writing the player’s name in his official notebook. If a player is dismissal. He is replaced by no more option can be given and player cannot participates in further games. The incidents of misconduct can occur at any time and the definitions of the offences in which the misconduct is consititute are broad.

Yellow Card

In particular, “of the game inappropriate behaviour” can be used to deal with most incidents that break the spirit of the game. Even if they are not listed as specific offenses. Or, the referee may shoe a yellow or red card. But they may be removed from the technical area is, if they are not able to conduct themselves responsibly. The referee decision is considered final in all pitch matters. The score of the match cannot be changed after the game. Even if subsequent evidence indicates that the decision (incliding awarded/goals non-awards) was incorrect.

Off field : Along with the general administration of the game. Footbll associations and competition organizers also implement good conduct in broader aspects of the game. Comments to the press enforce good connduct to deal with issues such as the club’s financial management, doping, age fraud and match fixtures. Most contests impose mandatory suspension for players who are sent to a game. Some regional events, if considered too serious (such as accusations of caste abuse), may result in a decision to impose heavier restrictions than red cards.

Red Card

Some associations allow the player to appeal against on-field suspension if the referee inside the club looks inaccurate or unnecessarily harsh.

Sanctions for these barriers may be imposed on individuals or clubs as a whole. Penalties may include fines, point deductions (in league compititions) or even expuision from compititions. For example, the English Football League has financed the administration. Has dropped 12 points from any team coming in. 110 other administrative sanctions have penalized against the game of shook. Micro seized or confiscated against which they will be awarded a technical loss or win. looo

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Laws of the Game

Laws

Goverment regulations of the game have 17 laws, in which a collection of terms and guidelines. This law is designed to be used at all levels of football. Which provide flesibility in their applictions depending on the nature of the game. The rules of the game are published by FIFA, but international football associations are maintained by the board, In addition to the seventeen methods, many (IFAB) decision and other directives contribute to the regulation of football.

Players, Equipments and officials

Each team has a maximum of 11 players, one of which must be a goalkeeper. The number of players ca be stated in the rules of the compitition. Which are necessary to form a team, which normally accompanies. If someone wants to, the penaltykeeper can play in the penalty are in front of his own goal. However, the outfield players are scored by the coach. Haas been placed in a policy, but these terms are not defined or required by law. This requires wearing shirtts, shorts, socks, shoes and adequate shin guards. Athletic supporters and protective cups are highly recommended by medical experts and professionals for male players. Today’s players avoid this to avoid head injury. Can choose to wear players are ponibited from wering or using anything that is dangerous to themselves or to another p;ayer, such as jewalry or watches. The goalkeeper must wear clothing that is worn by other players and match officials easily separated from garments.

Multiple players can be substituted during the gamer most substitutions in most competitive international and domestiic league matchhes are allowed in ninety minutes. Each team is allowed one more substitution include injury, faligue, effectiveness, a tactical switch, or wasting time at the end of a fast-thinking games. A player who has been substituted in standard adult matches shall not participate in the match. The IFAB recommendes that “if both have fewer then seven players, the match should not continue.” Any decision regarding points awarded for abandoned games is left to individual football associations.

A game is substituted by a referee who has “full authority to enforce the laws of the game in reletion to the match apppointed” and whose decision is final. The referee is assisted by two assistand referee. In high level sports, there is also a fourth offficer who assists the referee and there is a need to replace another officer with another.

Balls

The ball circle is 68 to 70 centimeters, weighing in the range of 410 to 450 grams and spherical between 0.6 to 1.10 oz and 0.6 at sea level.. And a pressure between 1.1 degree standard atmosphere, per square incch. Earlier the ball had leather pads that were pressurized to from a latex bladder but at every stage of the game they were now synthetic.

Pitching

For international adult matches, the length of the pitch or field is in the range of 100 – 110 meter (110-120 yard) and the width is in the range of 64-75 meter (70-80 yard). Field for non-international matches can be 90I120 meter (100-130 yard) in length and 45-90 meter (50-100 yard) in width, provided the pitch is not square. In 2008, IFA introduced standard pitch dimensions for international matches. In the form of 105 meter (115 yard) long and 68 meter (74 yard) wide, 105 meter (115 yar) size thw umodit.

However this decision was later withheld and not actually implemented. In front of the goal is the penalty area. This area is marked by the goal line, two lines starting from the goal line at 16.5m and 16.5m from the goal line to 16.5m. Has been added to the pitch and into a line. Threr are many acts in this area, the main one being to tell where the goalkeeper can handle the ball and where a penalty by a member of the deffense team is punished maybe kick other has markings define ball or kicks of the status of players, goal kick, penalty kick and corner kick situation.

90 Minute Ordinarry Time

A standard adult football match consists of two halves o 45 minutes each. Each half runs continuouusly is the cloock stops when the ball is not there. There is usually a 15 min ga between the halves, end of match. The referee, known as a full-time, is the official timekeeper of the match and in turn makes an allowance for lost players injured players to be noted or through other stoppages. This added time is called extra time in the FIFA document, but it is commonly referred to as stop time or injury time, while lost time can also be used as a synonym. The length of play time is at the discretion of the referee.

The playing time is not fully met with a stoppage time, and typically a 90 minute game has an “effective gaming time” of approximately one hour. The referee signals how much they want to stop.The fourth official then informs the players and spectotors to hold the board showing this number. The pausing time may be extended by the referee. Due to an incident in 1891 during a match between Stock and Aston Villa, they were 94 extra time was given. Stoke were awarded a penalty until the end of 1 to 0 and with only two minutes remaining.

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Cricket Laws

Laws of Cricket

The rules of the game in cricket are mentioned in one ssuch codification. Which is called the law of cricket law. There have been 42 laws. The oldest known format of which code was prepared in 1744 and has been owned and maintained in London since 1788 by its patronage.

Playing Area

Ground of the perfect pitch

The come played in the cricket field is the game of bat and ball. Which is played on a cricket field and played between 11 players. The field is usually circular or oval and a boundry is set at the edge of the playing field, which can be a picture a face line or combination of rope. The border should be marked along its entire length if possible. Wickets placed 20 meter apart. The pitch is a flat mud floor that is 3 meter wide. It has very short grass. Which with the nature of the game, are two wooden stumps in each wooden stump. On top of which there are two bails.

The total hight of a wicket is 3 feet. There are four white point lines on both sides of the pitch. Bowling crease one popping crease and two retuns crease. Three stumps are formed in the centre at the bowling crease, which is 8 feet 8 inches long. The pop crease is drawn 4 feet in front of the bowling crease. Its actually of unlimited lenth. The return crease is drawn at the right angle of the popping crease. So that it pierces the end of the bowling crease in to each other. Each return crease is lined as an 8 feet long line. So that the bowling crease is up to 4 feet in lenght behind the link. But actuallyits lenth would be unliited.

Match structure and closure

The captains of both teams decide to bounce a coin before starting the game, which team bat first and which team balll first. This action is repeated in the inning of every match. In every match, the between of the team try to score runs and all the players of the other team try to stop the runs and try to dismiss(out) all the batsmen. Teams change roles when the first innings ends. There may be two to four innings depending on the type of match.

A match is played in 3 to 5 days with four scheduled innings. A match with two scheduled innings is usally completed on the same day. All 11 members on the field stand in the field during an innings, but usally only 2 members of the batting side are present in the field at a given time. The exception to this is when a batsmen cannot run due to his illness of injury. In this cases the batsmen is allowed to run, one who cannot score runs even if the batsmen picks runs. But this does not apply in international cricket.

Ground Detail

The order of the batsmen is usually announced just before the match, but it may vary. The main objective of each team is to score more than. Their opponents , but some players are dismissed at the last minute as cricket, so that the match cab be won. If the team batting scores fewer runs than opposing team, so they are told the reason for the lose by number of runs.

If the team scored enough runs to win the final score, so it is said that the number won by wickets. A team that goes to its opponents, has lost a total of 6 wickets, so the match is won by 4 wickets. If the team batting in the end is all out, or both teams have the same runs. So match become a tie. In this, one over is given to both teams for the result of the match. The team that scores more runs wins the team.

Bat and Ball

The bats are made by wood, usually salix alba(white willow) and its cylinders have a bled like shape above the car handle. Bled should not be four and a quarter inches wide (108mm), and the total length of the bat should not exceed 38 inches(965cm). No standard weight. Which is usually between 2 pounds and 70s and 3 pounds. The ball is a hard to sea sphere with a circumference of 9 inches(22.9cm). There is a seam in the ball.

The captains is the most experienced team and its bowler would have are skills like batsman and wicket keeper. The captains players would have the responsibility to nominate and ensure the umpires before the match, with in the spirit and traditions of playing his players. The wicket keeper is a skilled field guard would be the only member of the fielding side which can affect stumping. Uaually 5 or 6 batsmen in a team and 4 or 5 specially bowlers and wicket keeper.

The wicket keeper and batsmen security personnel defensive non-regidity to the rigidity of the ball at speeds above 145 kmph. Some batsmen use extra padding inside their shirts and trousers. Like zhang pad, arm pad, thin pad and shoulders pad. Only wicket keepers are allowed to wear protective items, which is very close to the batsmen.

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Basic Game Play

Batsman and Bowler

The game consists of 13 players and two umpires on the field, two players are batmen, the remaining team consists of 11 members of the fielding team. The remaining nine batting players are in the dressing room away from the field. Ball, bats and first slip pads as well as with traditional kit, defensive equipment including two batsmen and wicket keeper safety helmets are worn with padded glores and leg guards. While the umpire stands at the and of the pitch on his short, his colleague stands outside or near the field called the square leg, so that it is in accordance with the popping crease at the end of the strike.

The bowling crease at which the wicket return lies between the crease, the bowler intends that he hits the wicket to prevent the least striker from the ball from scoring runs. TThe striker indends to defend his wicket and if possible hit the ball away from the pitch. Some players are skilled in batting and bowling or are both in batting and wicket keeper. Bowlers are classified according to their style, usually fast bowler asim bowler and spinners. The batsmen are of such type that they are right handed and left handed.

Fielding

Three of the 11 field guards are shot in the photo above, the other eight players are positioned in second place depending on the captain or bowler. Field guards often change positions between deliveries, as instructed by the captain or bowler. If a field guard is injured or becomes ill during a match, another player is allowed ta be replaced. Iff an injury-prome player is eligible to return, he is left in his place. The laws of cricket were updated in 2017 to allow the option of acting as a wiicket kepper.

Over

According to the rules, in every innings off the match, 6 balls were bowled in one over in turn by the ball. The name of the over came because the umpire says Over. At this point another bowler is positioned at the other end and the fielding side changes until it bats. A bowler cannot bowl two consecutive overs. Although a bowler can bowl many more from the same end, so joe was a non-striker. He now becames a striker umpires changes the be position so that the square leg that was the striker stands behind tthe wicket at the end and as opposite from the striker.

Umpires and Scorers

Two umpires stand to control the game in the field. One of which stands on the back side of the bowlers wicket aand the other is located 15-20 meter from the batsman on the bowler strike. The umpire has many responsibilities encluding desions a ball of has been bowled correctly. Can a batsmen be out when one-one scored? (the fielding side should first appeal to the umpire as to how it is or howzat) when the interval starts and ends the pitch field and weather utility for playing the game. The umpire is authorised to interrupt or realise in situations that may endanger the player. Television matches often have a third umpire outside the field who can make dicisions about certain events using video evidence, the third umpire must be in the former ICC member contrise for the duration of the test match and overs cricket under game conditions.

These goods also have match refree whose job is to ensure that the game is with in the law and the spirit of the game. Details of the match, encluding runs and other conditions those who enter officcial scorers, who represent each team. The scoeres are guided by the hand signals of the umpire for examples; the umpire raised the index finger and told that the batsman is out. If the batsmen narrates the for ball six runs, he raises both hands above the head. The scorer is reguired by law to take all wickets taken and over bowlded. They also not significant amounts of data addressed from the game. They are summarized on a scorer card, the statictics of a match.

Bowling and Dismissal

Most bowlers are considered experts all they are selected for the team, because he is selected because of his skill as a bowler some are even perfect expert and expert batsmen. Expets bowled multiple times during an innings but cannot bowl 2 consecutive overs. If the captain event to change a bowler, then the other bowler should be field tempararily. So that he can change immediately.

A bowler comes to his delivery strike while sprinting the ball, and when the bowler tries to score first, then it is understood that he runs out and then the ball runs out of hiim. A fast bowler can run much faster then a fast bowler is required, while bowlers have a slow pace, the fast bowler can deliver the ball at a speed of 145 KMPH. Fast bowlers move the ball in the air with speed and the delivery can trick the batsmen in to applring his short. Due to which the batsmen kepper catches out quickly the bowler at the other end are spin bowlers. Who used to throw the ball at a very slow speed and adopt various methods to deceive the batsman. The batsman has to be very carefull with such delivery because she often spins the ball. There are 10 type of batsman that can be dismiised(out), 5 reletive given front 5 iis the most common form of extremely rare dismissal: 1. Caught 2. Leg Before Wicket (LBW) 3. Runout and Stumps 4. Many ways to hit a wicket 5. Hit the ball Twice 6. Ground Out.

Batting Runs and Extra

Batsmen bat throw the battingg order. Already decided by the team captain and the umpire is introduced to start batting, the batsman has to adopt his preferred method of batting skilled batsmen can use short or strokes in defensive and attacking methods. The batsmen do not always try to hit the ball as hard as possible and a good player kicks the ball using only the wrist to make the to runs. The batsmen bat in many ways Example: Cut, Drive, Huk, Pull shots.

On strike, the batsmen has to stop the ball hitting the cricket and try to score runs. The decisions to take runs is usually made by the batsmen, who has a better view of the progress of the ball more than 1 run can be scored from a single hits. If the ball touches the boundry of the field then this run automatically reahes 4 runs outside the boundary line. Only strikes can score individual runs, but all runs are added to the team total. What the batsman misses the ball gives the batsmen time to take runs in the traditional way, whichh is cold leg by. If the bowler has delivered no ball, then he to ball again, which gives the batsman n apportunity to score more runs with this extra ball.

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Cricket Life

What is cricket ?

Cricket is a bat and ball game played between eleven players, which has a 20 meters (22 yard) pitch in the centre. There are two wickets (bails) on each side. All the members of one side hitting the same ball on one wicket and dismissing (out) one member of the batting. When all members are out, the bowling side bats and batting side bowls. The ball is thrown toowards the cricket by bowling. When the ball hits the stamp or bails is is caught by the batsman after hitting the ball with the bat, But before that he came to the commplete ground pitch. The ball is a hard solid sphere made of leather with a glightly raised sewn enclosing a cork corewhich is layered with tightly wound string. When all the batsmen in the batting are dismissing (out), then the innings ends andd the terms swap roles. The game is appointed by two umpires, who assist the mattch refree in international matches with the help of the third umpire. Fields scorers who record the matches statistical information. These umpires decides the record and right decisions of both the teams. Because of which one of the two teams would win.

Types of cricket

Many types of games are played between players, but cricket also played many typess of games. First, a test match lasts for more than 5 days. In which unlimited overs and team innings are of unlimited length. In this match all players play in all white kit. Some sportsmen wear protective clothing. In order to avoid injury from the ball. Apart from test matches, some matches are of limited overs like limited innings of twenty-20 overs and fifty-50 overs. A limited overs 20-overs match in played between cricket players and a number of matches are played in 20-overs innings. Similarly both teams play 50-50 overs in a 50 overs match. Many matches of 50 overs are played. Like for a 50 overs ODI match and World Cup match in 50 overs.

What is Historically of cricket ?

Historically cricket`s Origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south east england in the middle of the 16th century. It was long before the expansion of the British empire reached the first international match in the late 19t century. International cricket is famous it has more than 100 members and 12 members out out of it have played test matches. The rules of this match are held in london under the merilebon cricket club (MCC). The game is primarily celebrated in the indian subcontinent, Australia, United Kingdom, South Africa and West Indies. Women also very fondly play this game towards this game. Women have played a game played in cricket internationally. The most successful players team is Australia. Which has wonn 7 cups as one day international cricket including 5 World Cup also and world cup any other country of the world most expected. The Indian team under world cup is also two World Cup win.

Origins…

Hemledon club was founded in the 1760 and the formation of the Marylebon Cricket Club (MCC) for the next 20 years and by opening of lord old grounds of returnable in 1787, we people had both sport`s biggest club and its centre point. Marylebon cricket club shortly became the premier club of the game and a saviour of the cricket system right now. The new low brouht in late 18th century consisted of a Leg Before Wicket (LBW). The 19th century saw under arm bowling superseded by first round arm and then over arm bowling. Both devlopments were controversial. Organisation of the game at country level led to the creation of the of the county clubs, starting wwith sussex in 1839. In december 1889, the eight leading county clubs formed the official county championships, which began in 1890.The most famous player of the 19th century was W. G. Grace, who began his long and influential life in 1865. Those who were nominal businessmen but who were professionals in terms of financial gain. It is said that he was given more money to play cricket than any professional. In the last two decades, the first world war was named the Golden Age of Cricket, but in this period some great players and memorable matches, forms of competition held exclusively at county andd test level.

By the mid 19th century, it had become well established in Australia, Carebian, Indian, New Zealand, North America and South Africa. The first international match between the united states and canada in 1844. A team of english players on the first foreign trip to North America in 1859. In 1876-1877, one England tteam participated in the first test match against Australia at the melbourn cricket ground. Test cricket expanded in 1888-1889, when South Africa played England. South Africa was banned for international cricket as boycatt of apartheid from 1970 to 1992. Cricket ushed a new era in 1963, when english countries presented the format of the limited overs. The first limited overs popularity became in 1971 and the controlled world cricket council showcased the world cup for the first time 1975. New limited overs twenty-20 match at the beginnigs of 21st centurry, something special affected.

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Both Title of Cricket

Women`s Cricket

Women cricket was recovered in the Surrey in 1745. International develpoment in the early 20th century. When played the first test match between Australia and England in december 1934. The international women cricket council was established in 1958. First cricket world cup in 1973, when a women world cup was held in India, which helps in the management and development of cricket. ICC women rankings launched on 10 october 2015, which includes all formats of women cricket. The women winners were divided in to separate ODI and T20 lists in october 2018 after the decision to give T20 international status to all members.

Governance

International cricket council heeadquarters in Dubai. It was established in 1909 by the representatives of England, Australia and South-Africa as the imperial cricket conference. In 1965, it was named the international cricket conference, in 1989, it was given its current name. The ICC is responsible for organizing and conducting the major international tournaments of crire, the men and women versions of the cricket world cup, it also appointes umpires and refrees. All of which work in sanectioned test matches, limited overs, international and t20 international. Each member county has a national cricket board which regulates the cricket matches player in their country. Selectes the national team and organized home and away travel for the national team. In the West-Indies, which is known as a federation for the purpose of cricket, all these things are taken care of by the cricket West-Indies.

Nation List

Thhe table blow lists the ICC full members and their national cricket boards.

NATION —- Governing Body since

Afghanistan – Afghanistan cricket board

(22 june 2017)

Australia – cricket Australia(15 july 1909)

Bangladesh – Bangladesh cricket board

(26 june 2000)

England – England and wales cric board

(15 july 1909)

India – board of control for cricket in india

(31 may 1926)

Ireeland – cricket Ireland(22 june 2017)

New Zealand – New Zealand cricket

(31 may 1926)

Pakistan – Pakistan cricket board(28 july 1953)

South Africa – cricket south africa(15 july 1909)

Sri Lanka – sri lanka cricket(19 july 1981)

West Indies – cricket west indies(31 may 1926)

Zimbabwe – zimbabwe cricket(6 july 1992)

International Competitions

Most international matches are played as distant parts. When one nation travels to another country ffor several weeks or months and plays many matches against the host nation. Sometimes the winner of the test series is given a permanent trophy, which is the most famous name, The Ashes. The ICC world cup also hosts cometitions from several countries, includind the ICC Twenty20 world cup, and the ICC chaampion trophy. League competition has been proposed several times for both ICC world test championship generals and its first example of this started in 2019. 2020-22 ICC cricket world cup super league and its league competition planned to start in 2020. The ICC test panding operates the T20 ranking system for ODI rankings and countries playing these forms of cricket.

National Leaque Systems

called counties in England,and states in Australia aand islands in the west Indies. These are three or four day mtches.

  • Limited Overs Cricket

In these games, the lengh is determined by the in these games, and each side has one innings only. A special formula, known as the duckworth-lewis method is applied if rain reduces tthe time or play. It calculates the target score for the team batting second in a limited overs match interrupted by weather or other circumstance.

  • One Day International T50 –

ODIs are usually restricted to 50 overs batting for each side and each bowler can bowl up to 10 overs maximum. The highest team scorre is England, 481-6 against Australia in june 19, 2018. The highest individual score is 264 of 173 balls by Rohit Sharma for India against Sri Lanka.

  • Twenty 20 Criket (T20 cricket)

Twenty 20 cricket has 20 overs for each side and each bowler can bowl up to 4 overs maximum unlike 10 overs in an ODI math. The highest team score is 263-55 by Royal Challengers Banglore (RCB) against Pune Warrior India (PWI) in the 2013 IPL season. The highest individual score is 175 of 69 balls by Chris Gayle for RCB in the same match.

Advance

In England, a number of association football clubs owe their origine to ricketers who sough to play football as a branch of the derbysheir county cricket cub in 1884. Astan villa (1874) and Everton (1876) were both founded by members off church criccket teams. Sheffield United`s Brramall Lane grand was, from 1854, the home of the Sheffield Cricket Club, and then of Yorkshire, it was not used for football until 1862 and was shared by yorkshire andd sheffield united from 1889 to 1973.

In the late 19th centured, a formerr cricketer, english born. Henry Chadwick of Brooklyn, New York, was credited with devising the baseball box score fforr reporting game events. The first box score appeared in an 1859 issue of the game`s “historical essence” that chadwick is sometimes referred to as “the father of baseball” because he facilitated the poularity of the sport in the early days.

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Football Amazing

Association Football

Football, is commonly known as football or football. A team game played with a circular ball between two teams of 11 playerss. It is played by over two hundred fifty million players in over 2 hundred countries and it is also considered world’s most popular most sport. The game is played on a rectangular field, which is called a pitch with a goal at each end. The objective of the game is to score by moving the ball to the opposing goal ahead of the goal line.

Football is played according to the rules made in the form of sports laws. A ball is scored by aa team of 68-70 cm in the ball circumference, scoring the goal of the other team. The team that has scored more goals by the end of the game is the winner. If both teams score equal goals then that match is a draw. Each team is headed by a captain who has only one goverment responsibility according to his rules he has to represent the team before taking off or kicking a penalty. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or weapons other than goalkeeper in the playground. Was the other main player dropping the ball with his feet or acrossing it. But players cannot use any part of the body other than the hand and arms.

Which hosts the World Cup forr both men and women every 4 years. The FIFA World Cup was held every 4 years since 1930, excluding the 1942 and 1946 tournaments. In the final tournaments held every 4 years, 32 national teams are involved in the competition over a period of 4 weeks. It is the most presitigious football competition in the world as well as the most watched and organized competition in the world, beyond the olympic games. The UFA champion is the league’s most presitigious competition influenaing a wide television audience worldwide. The final of the football tournament is the most watched annual sporting event in the world in years.

Highest five European leagues follows as — Premier league (England), La league (Spain), Buddsliga Germony), Seri a (Italy), and League 1 (France). The salary of each league is more than 600 million, 763 million Uro, 1.185 billion dollar to attract the world’s best players. football is one of the codes that emerged from ancient times from various balls game players around the world. The beginning of the modern game began in 1863. When the football association slaughtered the laws of the game the code was originally in England.

In 1863 the code of football association rules were slaughtered by the football association in England. The first mention of the bloated ball used in the game was in the middle of the 14th century. Rules of the game were made in 1848, before is splits into 1863. Soccer word is desired from the word surname. The word football reaches its final form in 1895. Association football within the english language world is commonly called who have other codes of football in other countries, (Australia, Ireland, Wales, South Africa, New Zealand) can use any country.

History of Football

The world’s oldest competition was set up by FYA Coke and it has been contested by english taems since 1872. The first official international football match was also 1872 in Glasco in Scotland and provoking CWL Coke between England. Sports laws are determined by the International Football Association Board (IFAB) the board was founded in menchester by the football association, 1886 after the meeting. FIFA international football body established in Paris in 1904, and it was declared that he followed the sports laws of the football association. FIFA representation on the international football association board in 1913 due to the increasing popularity of internation sports.

Today football is played at a professional level worldwide, millions of people regularity go to the stadium in favorite team, while million people watch their games on television or internet. many people play football for hobbies. They are the highest TV viewers in footballl matches.

There is a lot of passion in many parts oof worrld football, individual fans play an important rule in the lives of permanant communities and even nations. When boys from english public schools and at universities like cambridge started football as a sport. Which was similiar to the modern game. Establishment of the oldest football league club in 1862. In 1863 the football association inn central London converted into a public house. This was the first orgnized attempt in the world to control the sports at the national level and this new institute was nameed association of football. Many peoplle beleive that not England but Scotland aware the world of football. First Scotland club famous and powerful queens not in the field until 1867 and the Scottish football association has to wait until 1873. FIFA organized the world championship in 1930. It is the oldest company at the state level, which was establized in 1893. The rules of foottball are determined by an international board oppointed byy FIFA. It is responsible for any adjustment to the rules of football.

Women’s association football

The moodern sport association has also severed ties with women in football. Womens first mention recovred by Scottish football association in Glasco in 1892. The first recorded football game amony women in England occurred in 1895. The earliest returnn European team was founded in 1894 by England activist Nettie Honeyball. It was named the British women’s football clubs. Association football has been played by women at least since the time of the women’s games recorded at the end of the 19th century.

Worldly organized women’s union football in the United Kingdom in the late 1960 and 1970 in Britain and finally this British women’s most prominent sports. Women’s football has faced struggles. In the early 1920 when crowds umbering 50 thousand in some matches, so it stopped oon 5 december 1921. FIFA women’s World Cup inaugurated in 1991 and has been held every 4 years there after, while women’s football has been an Olympic event since 1996.